Standard model and Higgs boson.
What is standard model? Well, standard model is a theory in particle physics that describes forces and elementary particles that make our universe. People have been improving this theory a long time. First we found atoms, then protons, neutrons, electrons and finally quarks and leptons. Standard model tells us that there are 12 particles and 4 four forces in our universe. I am not quite sure about it, I am taking this information from the book but I heard that there more particles are being discovered in really short time and there should be more than 30 by now ( it might be old information in the book). So 12 particles are 6 leptons and 6 quarks. Scientists think that those leptons and quarks can’t be divided.
Another four forces are gravitational force ( the weakest but the most important), electromagnetic, strong and weak forces. Scientists think that there are particular particle (ha-ha particular particle) for each of these forces, these particles are called bosons. It is actually pretty hard to understand since we got used to think of force as something not material, but it turns out force is just another kind of matter. So for each of these forces there are bosons. For instance, electromagnetic field transfer electromagnetic force to the matter with photons. Physicists say that Higgs boson has the same function, only it transfers mass.
According to the standard model matter can’t have a mass without Higgs boson. Scientists found an answer to this problem since we really believe standard model is true. Of course we hope to find something more beautifully explaining how elementary particles’ world works since standard model doesn’t include gravitational force and antimatter with anti energy. Many scientists hate this theory but we have nothing better, moreover it does give us some explanations. So these scientists say that particles do not have their own mass until they cross some specific field. This specific field is known as Higgs field. It is different for all particles, some can cross it some stay there. Overall, if Higgs boson really exists it means that everything that has mass cooperates with this Higgs field that exists everywhere in our universe. Reminds me of the either, do not you think so? And of course according to the standard model there should be “transfer particle” for a field, so this particle for Higgs field has got a name of Higgs boson.
Can you imagine that in 2012 scientists from LHC ( the large hadron collider) screamed they found the particle that behaves really like Higgs boson. They were happy at the beginning, but then it turned out that there can be more similar particles, so the researches on high energetic levels will continue.
Source: Science and Technology