Our world is rapidly developing around us and it is not a big surprise to see a surgical robot…well, actually for me it is a surprise. My sister sent me an article about a robot that makes stitches better than professional human surgeon. One of those robot experiments took place in Children’s National Medical Center in USA, they made a robot STAR. It can make stitches by itself with no human help. Robot uses computer sight, fluorescent markers and 3D cameras. According to images it gets it chooses the right technical program of stitching and gets it done with machine accuracy.
I think it is very good for people, because they will be more convinced on the operation’s quality since robots are gonna be more accurate. But on the other hand what will happen to human surgeons themselves? If imagine a world where human surgeons are old-style and robots make most of the surgical operations…well, for first it is kind of creepy to me because I think that there is a possibility that artificial intelligence can some day dominate over humanity. HA-HA. But everything can happen. I wouldn’t want to make even a step into the “humanless” hospital.
However, with people observing all this it seems pretty cool to be operated by a robot. It is easier, because neatly done surgical operation is achieved with big patience and a lot of practice for a human, plus huge amount of time since a human should study the theory to get to practice…when it takes only some time to calculate and make a surgical robot.
Standard model and Higgs boson.
What is standard model? Well, standard model is a theory in particle physics that describes forces and elementary particles that make our universe. People have been improving this theory a long time. First we found atoms, then protons, neutrons, electrons and finally quarks and leptons. Standard model tells us that there are 12 particles and 4 four forces in our universe. I am not quite sure about it, I am taking this information from the book but I heard that there more particles are being discovered in really short time and there should be more than 30 by now ( it might be old information in the book). So 12 particles are 6 leptons and 6 quarks. Scientists think that those leptons and quarks can’t be divided.
Another four forces are gravitational force ( the weakest but the most important), electromagnetic, strong and weak forces. Scientists think that there are particular particle (ha-ha particular particle) for each of these forces, these particles are called bosons. It is actually pretty hard to understand since we got used to think of force as something not material, but it turns out force is just another kind of matter. So for each of these forces there are bosons. For instance, electromagnetic field transfer electromagnetic force to the matter with photons. Physicists say that Higgs boson has the same function, only it transfers mass.
According to the standard model matter can’t have a mass without Higgs boson. Scientists found an answer to this problem since we really believe standard model is true. Of course we hope to find something more beautifully explaining how elementary particles’ world works since standard model doesn’t include gravitational force and antimatter with anti energy. Many scientists hate this theory but we have nothing better, moreover it does give us some explanations. So these scientists say that particles do not have their own mass until they cross some specific field. This specific field is known as Higgs field. It is different for all particles, some can cross it some stay there. Overall, if Higgs boson really exists it means that everything that has mass cooperates with this Higgs field that exists everywhere in our universe. Reminds me of the either, do not you think so? And of course according to the standard model there should be “transfer particle” for a field, so this particle for Higgs field has got a name of Higgs boson.
Can you imagine that in 2012 scientists from LHC ( the large hadron collider) screamed they found the particle that behaves really like Higgs boson. They were happy at the beginning, but then it turned out that there can be more similar particles, so the researches on high energetic levels will continue.
The big bang model is a theory that describes evolution of the universe from the moment it appeared in extra high temperature and density which occured about 13.8 billion years ago. The big bang theory appeared in 1920s, it’s father is Russian mathematician Alexander Friedmann. Later in 1940s Russian-born American physicist G. Gamov introduced new, modern version of the type of our universe.
The Big Bang Model consists of two assumptions. First assumption will be the famous theory of relativity by Einstein which describes the gravitational interaction of all matter. Second is Cosmological principle which says that an observer’s view of the universe doesn’t depend on the direction in which this observer looks nor on his location. This second assumption relates only to the large-scale universe and it implies that the universe has no edge, which means that the big bang origin occurred not at some particular point in space but rather throughout space at the same time.
From the highly compressed primordial state our universe began to cool down and decrease in density. Few seconds after explosion universe was cooled enough for nuclei to begin to form. 1 million years later formation of atoms began. That time radiation just traveled in space, but since the universe is expanding ( Hubble observed red shift of the distant galaxies which meant there were moving away from us. Red or Blue shift is kind of Doppler effect. It was perfectly described in Hawking’s book ” Brief history of time”. When you observe a car moving toward you the sounds becomes louder and louder, and when the car is moving away it is quite. So the same is with the shifts: when something rapidly moving away from us we see red shift and when moving toward us we observe blue shift). So since the universe is expanding radiation waves become longer and longer which by now we still can observe only as microwaves. These waves are called Microwave Background Radiation or “three degree” ( actually 2.728k). This MBR was discovered accidentally by American scientists Penszias and Wilson.
Can you imagine our geographical map with Australia at the center and South pole emerging at the top? Why is the map the way it is? Why there is Europe at the center of map? I searched the answer in few books and found out why. The answer is Eurocentrism. Eurocentrism is hard to explain in simple words but if you say “it is when people fro Europe considered themselves cooler, smarter and more intelligent than the other people.
Many years ago all civilizations liked to map the world around themselves. In ancient Greece the famous philosopher Aristotle located Greece between Europe and Asia. ascribing the best features of both to his fellows Greeks and considering the rest to be the worst. Later Western Europeans followed Aristotelian haughtiness and of course his philosophy. Europeans thought higher of themselves than of others and due to their political and financial power people around the world believed it.
Of course now, in the modern world science is considered to be all people’s achievement. But anyway, a long time Europe was thought as a cradle of intelligence and knowledge. There was so called Dark Age that was followed by Middle age and finally Renaissance in 14th century. Historians have illuminated Europe’s Dark and Middle Ages from the books saying that nothing particularly important happened then. But this is not true! They made it seem that scientific knowledge came from ancient Greece straight to Renaissance. Dark age had meaning on our development as much as Middle age. While Europe was in ITS Dark age the rest of the world continued living and making impacts on our knowledge. Arabic scholars, for instance, actively studied Greek knowledge. China made a huge innovation, it had a strong economy and introduced more advanced industrial and agricultural innovations in Europe even though it was vied as remote and esoteric place. Muslims were experimenters and theoreticians, they had their own skills and beliefs that were collected by them. They also modified and expanded Greek knowledge on medicine and mathematics. But Europe was silent then, there were no invention on science or technology from there. Frequent trading networks were expanding and people were able to travel long distances. Moving from one place to other they took their thoughts, ideas and things that differed so much from the local that their technics changed as they moved because knowledge exchanged and adopted to fit the local circumstances. In Europe, there is a city in Italy called Venice. Venice, you might have heard, is the place of many innovations, but it is not so since Venice traded eastward and westward. So every innovation from there was actually modified technics and methods from China, India and Islamic civilization.
Modern scientific world is the outcome of Anglo-American and European effort. Historians have just erased the huge amount of information elevating Dark and Middle ages from the books on Science history. We see that Europe wasn’t the only place on Earth to be developing. The rest of the world made a big influence on us today.